"The proposed invisible learning concept is the result of several years of research and work to integrate diverse perspectives on a new paradigm of learning and human capital development that is especially relevant in the context of the 21st century. This view takes into account the impact of technological advances and changes in formal, non-formal, and informal education, in addition to the 'fuzzy' metaspaces in between. Within this approach, we explore a panorama of options for future development of education that is relevant today. Invisible Learning does not propose a theory, but rather establishes a metatheory capable of integrating different ideas and perspectives. This has been described as a protoparadigm, which is still in the 'beta' stage of construction."

—Cristóbal Cobo & John Moravec

About the Book

Invisible Learning is a book produced as a result of several years of research, in which the authors propose a remixing of innovative learning paradigms and human capital development.

This work analyzes the impact of technological advances and changes in formal, non-formal, and informal education –and the meta-spaces in between. The product is journey that offers the reader an overview of options for the future development of education that is relevant for this century.

Invisible Learning examines current theories and trends, as well as international experiences and technological developments that promote sustainable innovation in education.

The book provides an extensive bibliography, a comprehensive glossary, and other digital resources, including a collection of research and various case studies which reveal issues such as: new theories and ideas in education; challenges for 21st century educational institutions; policy recommendations; new flows of innovation; peer-based learning; informal education; and, the use of open and collaborative technologie.

This work, published in April 2011, is edited by Laboratori de Mitjans Interactius (University of Barcelona) with additional support from the International University of Andalucía.

ISBN of the Spanish electronic edition: 978-84-475-3517-0
ISBN of the Spanish paper edition: 978-84-475-3518-7

About the Authors

John Moravec (PhD) is a faculty member in Innovation Studies and the Master of Liberal Studies graduate programs, and is the co-director of the Leapfrog Institutes at the University of Minnesota. He is the director of Education Futures LLC; co-founder of the Horizon Forum, a roundtable on the future of education at all levels; and, is also the editor of Education Futures.

John’s research is focused on human capital development as society approaches an increasingly complex and ambiguous future. Technological change drives social change and its impact is accelerating exponentially. Our schools, universities, and other institutions must leapfrog ahead of this curve for all people to compete in highly globalized, knowledge- and innovation-based societies. His approach is global in scope, and he most actively collaborates with colleagues in the United States, Latin America, and Europe.

Cristóbal Cobo (PhD) is a researcher at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford. Between 2005 and 2010, he was a professor-researcher at FLACSO-México. At the age of 29, he earned his doctorate ‘cum laude’ at the University of Barcelona, for his work on developing experimental models to optimize the interaction between humans and machines. He has been an evaluator of public policy for the government of Mexico on new technologies and education. Together with Hugo Pardo, he published Planeta Web 2.0, which has been downloaded over 170,000 times. In 2009, he received a scholarship from the University of Oxford to study European public policy on the development of digital skills. In 2010, he was appointed to the advisory council of the Latin American 2010 Horizon Report, a global study developed by the New Media Consortium. He is also the editor of ergonomic.

Cristóbal studied the gap between educational public policies that promote the incorporation of new technologies in learning environments and their low correlation with academic performance of children who use these technologies. His publications are centered around innovation in learning, digital skills (e-skills), informal learning, and the profile of works in the 21st century. He has lectured throughout Latin America and the United States, England, Holland, Spain, Portugal and China.

Table of Contents

by William Dutton, Director, Oxford Internet Institute

Chapter 0
Introduction to Invisible Learning: The (r)evolution outside the classroom

Dives into key questions: What, how, where, when, but also the why and what is Invisible Learning for. Describes the genesis of the project, participating countries, describing the 5 basic points of the project, and defines of liberal and social technology skills.

Chapter 1
From Society 1.0 to Society 3.0

A look at current issues surrounding Invisible Learning. The analysis begins as a journey starting in Society 1.0, passes through today’s Society 2.0, and illustrates the future challenges of Society 3.0. This chapter illustrates the transformation from industrial society, to knowledge societies and the foundations of societies focused on innovation.

Chapter 2
Invisible use of technologies and competencies for global citizens

A comprehensive overview. Accounts for the invisibility of technology and the development of digital skills. Includes subliminal messages to the technocrats of educational policies. Offers countless snapshots of valuable experiences of informal use of digital technologies and reveals the role they play in education. Finally, the debate is focuses on competencies for globalization.

Chapter 3
Cases and experiences to learn from

A full-color collage of ideas and trends. Edupunk, expanded education, lifelong learning, edupop, incidental learning, and ubiquitous learning are explored –each of them as an invitation, from very different perspectives, to explore patterns of learning that are more flexible, innovative and creative. You can learn anytime and anywhere.

Chapter 4
Tools and methods for studying the future

This is the engine room. We present tools and methods to explore and/or create possible futures for education. The need to stay "ahead of the curve" requires new approaches to (re)thinking about the future. Supported by the "do it yourself" paradigm, we provide valuable resources and examples to explore these transformations.

Chapter 5
Vox populi and in lieu of conclusions

An open ending. Here we present a summary of the 10 most important ideas of the book (each written in 100 words). We then present an inventory of perspectives gathered from interviews with experts. Also included is a summary of international perspectives on Invisible Learning. Finally, we close in lieu of conclusion, with a product of a proto-paradigm in construction.

by Roger Schank, CEO, Socratic Arts

This chapter contains a rich inventory of words to remember. Here we present a set of key terms, definitions and related notes. If we invent a word or refer to an obscure idea, we will define it here. We hope that this glossary will be a useful resource independent of the book.

Resources [digital]
The yellow pages of the book. A collection of platforms, resources, tools, sites, applications and online readings that have been inventoried throughout the text. In addition all URLs have been shortened to a minimum to facilitate ease of use.

Read an Extract

From Chapter 1 (Spanish Edition)


La industrialización europea vino acompañada de una serie de transformaciones políticas, económicas y sociales que afectaron directamente a la educación. Los regentes querían sustituir a los aristócratas del gobierno por ciudadanos a los que se les hubiese inculcado el orgullo por la patria y la disposición para trabajar por el “bien” del país. Al mismo tiempo, el crecimiento económi- co demandaba un mayor número de operarios en las fábricas y de funcionarios del gobierno para administrar el sistema.

Para poder satisfacer estas necesidades, Federico II de Prusia puso en marcha en 1763 lo que se conoce como la reforma más radical dentro de la historia de la educación: la escolarización obligatoria. Todos los niños de entre cinco y trece años tenían que asistir a la escuela, construida siempre en terreno propiedad del Estado. Allí se ponían en práctica los principios de la produc- ción industrial. Por ejemplo, los alumnos se sentaban mirando a la cabecera de la clase donde el profesor, símbolo de la autoridad absoluta, los bombardeaba con información y propaganda del gobierno, a fin de “cargar” de datos sus cabezas, como si se trata- se de recipientes vacíos.

En otras palabras, en la etapa industrial el Estado se ocupaba de fabricar estudiantes leales al sistema y capacitados para trabajar en el futuro como operarios o funcionarios del gobierno. Este modelo de educación obligatoria ganaría popularidad en Europa y sería importado en todo el mundo occidental donde hoy día continúa siendo el modelo de educación por antonomasia.

El problema surge cuando, en el siglo XXI, estos mismos Estados van dejando poco a poco atrás el modelo de sociedad industrial, evolucionando hacia una sociedad basada en la innovación y el conocimiento, que precisan una menor intervención guberna- mental. Es decir, la sociedad del siglo XXI no necesita un sistema educativo cuyo objeto sea generar obreros o funcionarios del gobierno.

A la luz de esta reflexión, cabe preguntarse cuál es el propósito último de la educación. ¿Educamos con el fin de fabricar obreros del siglo XVIII o, por el contrario, estamos educando a los líderes de la sociedad de la innovación y del conocimiento?

Aprendizaje Invisible libro

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